What is nginx?

What is nginx?.jpg

What is nginx?

nginx is an open-source web server software widely used for serving web content, acting as a reverse proxy and load balancer. It was developed to address the limitations of traditional web servers and to provide improved performance, scalability, and flexibility.

In 2013, came out with their NGINX Plus subscription-based product that offered additional capabilities beyond the open-source version, including active health monitoring, session persistence (relying on cookies), integration with DNS service discovery, a Cache Purging API, support for AppDynamic, Datalog, Dynatrace, and New Relic plugins, Active-Active HA with configuration synchronization, a Key-Value Store, seamless updates of upstream configurations with zero downtime, key-value storage using the Nginx Plus API, and a dynamic web application firewall (WAF) module.

One of the key features of nginx is its ability to handle many concurrent connections while consuming minimal system resources. It achieves this by using an event-driven, asynchronous architecture, allowing it to manage multiple connections without additional threads or processes efficiently. This makes Nginx highly suitable for high-traffic websites and applications that require fast and responsive performance.

nginx vs. Apache

Nginx and Apache are popular web servers that app developers use to serve websites and applications. While they share some similarities, there are also several key differences between them.

  • Architecture: One of the fundamental differences between nginx and Apache lies in their architecture. Apache follows a traditional multi-process, multi-threaded model, where a separate thread or process handles each connection. On the other hand, nginx follows an event-driven, asynchronous model, where a single master process handles multiple connections simultaneously. This architecture allows nginx to handle more concurrent connections efficiently, making it more suitable for high-traffic websites.

  • Performance: Due to its efficient architecture, nginx generally outperforms Apache in handling concurrent connections and serving static content. It uses less memory and CPU resources, making it more scalable and capable of handling heavier workloads. Conversely, Apache performs better when dynamic content generation or complex server-side processing is required.

  • Configuration: Another notable difference is the syntax and configuration options of nginx and Apache. Apache uses a more traditional, human-readable config file format, often preferred by beginners and those who value readability. Nginx uses a more compact, declarative configuration language that may require a steeper learning curve but offers greater flexibility and efficiency.

  • Modules and Extensibility: Both nginx and Apache support modular architectures, allowing developers to extend their functionality through modules. Apache has a vast ecosystem of modules and plugins, providing many features and functionalities. While not as extensive as Apache, Nginx has many modules covering the most common use cases. Additionally, Nginx is known for its ability to efficiently handle reverse proxying and load balancing, making it a popular choice for high-performance applications.

  • Concurrency Model: Another significant difference between nginx and Apache is their concurrency model. Nginx excels in handling many concurrent connections and is optimized for high-performance scenarios, making it well-suited for serving static content and handling heavy traffic. Apache, on the other hand, is better at managing dynamic content and complex server-side processing. It is more suitable for applications that require extensive scripting and dynamic content generation.

  • Community and Support: Apache has been around longer and has a larger community and support ecosystem. It has a well-established reputation and many resources, including documentation, forums, and online communities. While increasingly popular, Nginx has a smaller, but growing community, and it still provides adequate support through official documentation, forums, and developer resources.

Advantages of using nginx over Apache

There are several advantages of using nginx over Apache for application developers. Here are some of the key advantages:

  1. Performance: nginx is known for its high-performance capabilities. It is designed to handle a large number of concurrent connections efficiently. Unlike Apache, nginx has a smaller memory footprint and can handle more simultaneous requests, making it a better choice for high-traffic websites or applications.

  2. Scalability: nginx's architecture is event-driven and asynchronous, allowing it to handle many concurrent connections with minimal resource utilization. This makes it highly scalable, enabling developers to handle increasing traffic loads without additional hardware efficiently.

  3. Reverse proxy: nginx is often used as a reverse proxy server, which can improve performance and security. It can cache static content, reducing the load on the application servers and speeding up response times. Additionally, nginx can also act as a load balancer, distributing incoming requests across multiple backend servers ensuring efficient utilization of resources.

  4. Configuration flexibility: nginx offers a flexible and powerful configuration system. It uses a simple and intuitive syntax, allowing developers to quickly and easily configure various server settings and behavior. Additionally, nginx supports dynamic configuration updates, which means changes can be applied without restarting the server, reducing downtime.

  5. Stability and reliability: nginx is known for its stability and reliability. It has a strong track record of powering high-traffic websites and has proven to be a reliable choice for many large-scale deployments. Its modular architecture and robust error-handling mechanisms contribute to its stability, ensuring it can handle high loads and function reliably even under challenging conditions.

  6. Security: nginx has built-in security features and is known for its ability to handle malicious traffic effectively. It includes IP and request rate limiting, SSL/TLS encryption support, and customizable access controls. These security features help protect applications and websites from various attacks, making nginx a secure choice for developers.

  7. Easy integration with other technologies: nginx can easily integrate with other technologies commonly used by application developers. It can be a reverse proxy for application servers such as Node.js, Ruby on Rails, or Django. It allows developers to leverage nginx's performance and scalability benefits without changing their application architecture. Additionally, nginx supports various protocols and modules, making it adaptable to different use cases and integration scenarios.

What are some common nginx configuration tasks?

There are several common nginx configuration tasks that application developers frequently encounter. These tasks include:

Server Block Configuration: Nginx uses server blocks to define how it handles incoming requests for different domains or IP addresses. Developers must configure server blocks to define the root directory, access permissions, SSL certificates, and other settings for each domain or IP address.

Load Balancing: Nginx can be used as a load balancer to distribute incoming traffic across multiple backend servers. Developers should configure the load balancing algorithm, define backend server addresses, and set up health checks to ensure proper load distribution and failover.

Reverse Proxying: Nginx can act as a reverse proxy, sitting in front of backend servers and handling client requests on their behalf. Developers must configure Nginx to forward requests to the correct backend servers, handle SSL termination, and modify request headers or responses.

Caching: Nginx supports caching of static and dynamic content to improve performance. Developers can configure Nginx to cache certain types of content, set cache expiration rules, and control cache storage size.

SSL/TLS Configuration: Nginx can handle SSL/TLS termination and encryption, ensuring secure client and server communication. Developers must configure SSL certificates, enable secure protocols and ciphers, and set up redirects from HTTP to HTTPS.

URL Rewriting: Nginx allows developers to rewrite URLs to make them more readable or redirect requests. Developers can configure Nginx to rewrite URLs based on specific rules or patterns, such as redirecting all requests from HTTP to HTTPS, removing file extensions, or redirecting specific URLs to different locations.

Access Control: Nginx provides various mechanisms for controlling access to web resources. Developers can configure Nginx to restrict access based on IP address, implement basic or token-based authentication, or set up access control lists (ACLs) to allow or deny access based on specific criteria.

Compression: Nginx can compress responses before sending them to clients, reducing bandwidth usage and improving performance. Developers can configure Nginx to enable compression and specify compression algorithms and compression levels.

Error Handling: Nginx allows developers to customize error pages and handle various HTTP errors. Developers can configure Nginx to display custom error pages, redirect users to a different location, or perform specific actions based on different error codes.

Logging and Monitoring: Nginx provides extensive logging and monitoring capabilities. Developers can configure Nginx to log various types of information, such as access logs, error logs, or custom logs. They can also integrate Nginx with monitoring tools or analyze logs using log analysis tools for performance optimization and troubleshooting.

Setting up nginx as a reverse proxy

To set up Nginx as a reverse proxy, follow these steps:

1. Install Nginx: Start by installing Nginx on your server. You can do this by running the appropriate command for your operating system. For example, on Ubuntu, you can use the following command:


sudo apt-get install nginx


2. Configure Nginx as a reverse proxy: Once Nginx is installed, you need to configure it to act as a reverse proxy. Open the Nginx configuration file using a text editor of your choice. The file is typically located at /etc/nginx/nginx.conf or /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf.

3. Set up the backend servers: Identify the backend servers that you want Nginx to proxy requests to. Add the following configuration block inside the http block to define the upstream servers:


http {


upstream backend {







Replace and with your backend servers' IP addresses or hostnames.

4. Configure the reverse proxy: Next, configure Nginx to act as a reverse proxy by adding the following configuration block inside the http block:


http {


server {

listen 80;


location / {

proxy_pass http://backend;





Replace with your domain name.

5. Test and restart Nginx: Save the configuration file and test it for syntax errors by running the following command:


sudo nginx -t


If there are no errors, restart Nginx by running the following command:


sudo service nginx restart


6. Verify the reverse proxy: Verify that Nginx is acting as a reverse proxy by accessing your domain from a web browser. Nginx should forward the requests to the backend servers and return the responses.

How can I secure an nginx server?

Securing an nginx server is crucial to protect it from potential threats and ensure the safety of your applications and data. Here are some steps you can take to enhance the security of your nginx server:

  • Keep nginx up to date: Regularly update nginx to the latest stable version. This ensures that any security vulnerabilities or bugs are patched, reducing the risk of exploitation.

  • Enable HTTPS: Enable HTTPS (HTTP over SSL/TLS) to encrypt data transmitted between the server and clients. Obtain a valid SSL/TLS certificate from a trusted certificate authority (CA) and configure nginx to use it.

  • Configure secure protocols and ciphers: Disable deprecated and weak protocols (e.g., SSLv2, SSLv3) and ciphers (e.g., RC4, 3DES). Use strong encryption protocols like TLS 1.2 or higher and secure ciphers for better security.

  • Implement a firewall: Configure a firewall to restrict incoming and outgoing traffic to your server. Allow only necessary ports and protocols while blocking any unnecessary or potentially insecure ones.

  • Use strong passwords: Set strong, unique passwords for all user accounts, including server administration, SSH access, and database access. Consider using a password manager to generate and store complex passwords securely.

  • Protect against brute force attacks: Implement measures to prevent or limit brute force attacks on your server. This can include rate limiting, CAPTCHA challenges, or using tools like fail2ban to block repeated failed login attempts automatically.

  • Limit server exposure: Restrict access to your nginx server by allowing only necessary IP addresses or networks to connect to it. This can be done by configuring firewall rules or using tools like IP whitelisting.

  • Enable logging and monitoring: Enable nginx access and error logging to track and analyze server activity. Implement a monitoring system to detect suspicious or anomalous behavior and take appropriate action.

  • Disable unnecessary modules: Review and disable any unnecessary nginx modules to reduce the attack surface of your server. Only enable the modules that are required for your specific use case.

  • Regularly back up your server: Regularly backup your nginx server configuration, SSL certificates, and any other critical data. This ensures you can quickly recover from any security incidents or server failures.

  • Implement security best practices: Follow industry best practices such as applying the principle of least privilege, regularly auditing your server configuration, and educating yourself and your team about common security threats and mitigation techniques.

  • Conduct security assessments: Periodically perform security assessments on your nginx server to identify vulnerabilities or weaknesses. This can include penetration testing, vulnerability scanning, or code reviews.

What are the best practices for using nginx?

When it comes to using nginx, there are several best practices that application developers should follow to ensure optimal performance, security, and scalability. Here are some key best practices to consider:

  • Optimize nginx configuration

    • Tune worker_processes and worker_connections based on your server's hardware and expected traffic.

    • Set an appropriate keepalive_timeout value to reduce the number of TCP connections.

    • Enable gzip compression to reduce the size of data transmitted.

  • Secure your nginx server

    • Keep your nginx server updated with the latest version to benefit from security patches.

    • Use HTTPS to encrypt data transmission and protect against eavesdropping.

    • Implement strong SSL/TLS configurations and regularly update them to maintain security.

    • Disable unnecessary server tokens to avoid revealing sensitive information.

  • Load balancing and caching

    • Utilize nginx's load-balancing capabilities to distribute traffic across multiple servers.

    • Implement caching mechanisms to improve performance and reduce server load.

    • Configure caching headers and use caching plugins to cache static content.

  • Optimize server performance

    • Minimize the number of HTTP requests by combining and minifying CSS and JavaScript files.

    • Leverage nginx's reverse proxy capabilities to offload resource-intensive tasks to backend servers.

    • Implement server-side caching to reduce the load on your application servers.

  • Implement rate limiting and access controls

    • Use ngx_http_limit_req_module to limit the requests accepted from a single IP address.

    • Implement access control lists (ACLs) to restrict access to certain resources or IP addresses.

  • Monitor and analyze nginx logs

    • Monitor nginx logs to identify errors, performance issues, or security threats.

    • Use tools like ELK stack (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana) or Splunk to analyze and visualize log data.

  • Automate nginx configuration

    • Use tools like Ansible or Puppet to automate the deployment and configuration of nginx servers.

    • Maintain version control of your nginx configurations to easily revert to previous versions if needed.

  • Use proper error handling and error pages

    • Customize error pages to provide meaningful information to users in case of errors.

    • Implement proper error-handling mechanisms to handle exceptions and prevent information leakage.

  • Regularly test and benchmark your nginx setup

    • Perform load testing and benchmarking to ensure your nginx setup can handle expected traffic levels.

    • Monitor performance metrics and conduct performance tuning as needed.

  • Stay informed and keep learning

    • Follow nginx community forums, blogs, and mailing lists to stay updated with the latest best practices and security vulnerabilities.

    • Continuously improve your knowledge and skills in nginx by attending webinars, workshops, or online courses.

How do you configure nginx?

Configuring nginx involves changing the nginx configuration file to customize its behavior. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to configure nginx:

1. Locate the nginx configuration file: The nginx configuration file is typically located at /etc/nginx/nginx.conf or /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf, depending on your distribution.

2. Open the configuration file using a text editor: Use a command-line text editor, such as nano or vim, to open the nginx configuration file. For example, you can use the following command to open the file with nano: sudo nano /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

3. Understand the structure of the configuration file: The nginx configuration file consists of multiple blocks, directives, and context. Each block defines a specific configuration context, such as http for global HTTP configurations, server for server-specific configurations, and location for URL-based configurations.

4. Make necessary changes to the configuration: Depending on your requirements, you can modify various directives within the configuration file. Some common directives include:

  • listen: Specifies the IP address and port that nginx should listen on.

  • server_name: Defines the domain name or IP address associated with the server block.

  • root: Sets the root directory where nginx should look for files to serve.

  • location: Configures specific URL-based behaviors, such as proxying requests, serving static files, or applying access controls.

  • index: Customize the list of files Nginx should look for as index files when serving static content. By default, Nginx includes index.html, index.htm, and index.php in this list.

  • try_files: Defines the order in which nginx should try different files or URI paths.

Consult the nginx documentation for a complete list of directives and their descriptions.

5. Save the configuration file and restart nginx: After making the necessary changes, save the configuration file and exit the text editor. Then, restart the nginx service to apply the new configuration. The command for restarting nginx may vary depending on your distribution, but it is typically one of the following:

- sudo service nginx restart

- sudo systemctl restart nginx

- sudo /etc/init.d/nginx restart

- sudo nginx -s reload

Ensure there are no syntax errors in the configuration file by running the command sudo nginx -t before restarting nginx.

You can configure nginx to meet your specific application requirements by following these steps. Test your configuration changes and monitor nginx logs for errors or warnings.

How do you control nginx?

To control Nginx, you can use the following methods:

  1. Start and stop Nginx: Using the command-line interface, you can start and stop the Nginx service. On Linux systems, you can use the following commands:

    • To start Nginx: sudo systemctl start nginx

    • To stop Nginx: sudo systemctl stop nginx

    • You can also use the restart or reload options instead of start to respectively restart or reload the configuration of Nginx without stopping the service.

  2. Check the status of Nginx: To check the status of the Nginx service or verify if it is running, you can use the following command:

    • sudo systemctl status nginx

  3. Configure Nginx: The configuration files for Nginx are usually located in the /etc/nginx directory. The main configuration file is typically named nginx.conf. You can edit this file using a text editor to make changes to the Nginx configuration.

  4. Test the configuration: Before applying any changes to the Nginx configuration, it's a good practice to test it for syntax errors. You can do this by running the following command:

    • sudo nginx -t

  5. Reload the configuration: After making changes to the Nginx configuration files, you need to reload the configuration for the changes to take effect. You can use the following command to do this:

    • `sudo systemctl reload nginx

  6. Restart: Sometimes, you may need to restart Nginx to apply configuration changes. However, this can cause a brief interruption in service. To avoid this, you can use a graceful restart, which allows Nginx to finish processing current requests before restarting. You can achieve this by using the following command:

    • sudo systemctl reload nginx

  7. Control Nginx with the systemd init system: On Linux systems using the systemd init system, you can use the systemctl command to control the Nginx service. Some commonly used commands include:

    • Start Nginx: sudo systemctl start nginx

    • Stop Nginx: sudo systemctl stop nginx

    • Restart Nginx: sudo systemctl restart nginx

    • Reload configuration: sudo systemctl reload nginx

    • Check status: sudo systemctl status nginx

Using these methods, you can easily control Nginx and manage its configuration to ensure smooth operation and efficient performance of your web applications.

Can you use PHP on nginx?

Yes, you can use PHP on nginx. Nginx can act as a reverse proxy server for PHP applications, forwarding requests to a PHP processing engine such as PHP-FPM (FastCGI Process Manager). This allows nginx to handle PHP requests and effectively deliver dynamic content to users.

To use PHP on nginx, you must install PHP-FPM and configure nginx to pass PHP requests to the PHP-FPM process. Here are the general steps to set up PHP with nginx:

1. Install PHP and PHP-FPM on your server.

2. Configure PHP-FPM to listen on a socket or port.

3. Configure nginx to forward PHP requests to the PHP-FPM process.

4. Test your configuration by creating a simple PHP file and accessing it through your nginx server.

Here is an example of a nginx configuration block that routes PHP requests to PHP-FPM:


location ~ \.php$ {

include snippets/fastcgi-php.conf;

fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php/php7.4-fpm.sock; # path to your PHP-FPM socket

fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;

include fastcgi_params;



In this example, the location block matches requests with a .php extension. The fastcgi_pass directive specifies the socket or address where the PHP-FPM process is listening. The fastcgi_param directives set the necessary environment variables for PHP processing.

Once you have set up PHP with nginx, you can start developing and running PHP applications on your nginx server.

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