Industrial control systems (ICS) are vital in modern manufacturing applications. ICS is an umbrella term encompassing different types of control systems used in industrial processes. The primary function of ICS is to automate the processes and streamline production in industries such as refineries, wastewater treatment plants, and water treatment facilities. ICS also plays a critical role in other sectors, such as energy, transportation, and critical infrastructure.
ICS uses a combination of hardware and software components to control and monitor industrial processes. The primary elements of an ICS are Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), Distributed Control Systems (DCS), and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. ICS also incorporates other types of controllers, such as Programmable Automation Controllers (PACs) and Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs).
SCADA and DCS are two types of control systems used in ICS. SCADA systems are designed to monitor and control large-scale processes, while DCS manages small to medium-scale processes. SCADA and DCS systems rely on Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) to collect data from sensors and other control devices. SCADA systems also use Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) to display data to the operator.
ICS systems are vulnerable to cyber threats due to their connectivity to the internet and the use of outdated software and operating systems. Malware and other cyberattacks can compromise the security of ICS systems, leading to significant financial losses and even loss of life in some cases. Organizations must implement robust ICS security solutions to address these vulnerabilities, such as authentication protocols, data center segmentation, and supply chain security measures.
In 2017, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) released guidelines for ICS security. The policies provide a framework for securing ICS environments and highlight the importance of conducting regular risk assessments, implementing access control measures, and implementing security updates and patches.
Industrial automation is another critical component of ICS. Automation involves the use of control systems to manage and optimize industrial processes. It enables companies to increase efficiency, reduce costs, and improve safety in their operations. Integrating Internet of Things (IoT) devices and other smart sensors have revolutionized industrial automation, enabling real-time monitoring and control of industrial processes.