AndroidAndroid V4 Access Manager API Reference for Realtime Apps

PubNub Access Manager (PAM) extends PubNub's existing security framework by allowing developers to create and enforce secure access to channels and channel groups throughout the PubNub Real-Time Network.

As soon as Access Manager is enabled, no pub/sub-operations can be done without first explicitly providing an authorization token to the PubNub object. If an invalid token is provided, the requesting client will receive a Forbidden Error.

Learn more about Access Manager here.


Requires Access Manager add-on XRequires that the Access Manager add-on is enabled for your key. See this page on enabling add-on features on your keys:

http://www.pubnub.com/knowledge-base/discussion/644/how-do-i-enable-add-on-features-for-my-keys.
This function establishes access permissions for PubNub Access Manager (PAM) by setting the read or write attribute to true. A grant with read or write set to false (or not included) will revoke any previous grants with read or write set to true.
Permissions can be applied to any one of three levels:
  1. Application level privileges are based on subscribeKey applying to all associated channels.
  2. Channel level privileges are based on a combination of subscribeKey and channel name.
  3. User level privileges are based on the combination of subscribeKey, channel and auth_key.
 
For NTP synchronization, please ensure that you have configured NTP on your server to keep the clock in sync. This is to prevent system clock drift leading to 400 Invalid Timestamp error response.
https://support.pubnub.com/support/solutions/articles/14000043626-why-do-i-get-invalid-timestamp-when-i-try-to-grant-permission-using-access-manager-
When a user attempts to access a PubNub resource, PAM will evaluate any existing rules using the following order of precedence before access to a channel is granted to the user:
  1. Application Level - PAM privileges are always evaluated first at the Application level. If either read or write attribute is set to true for a subscribeKey, PAM will immediately grant access for that attribute without proceeding to check permissions at either Channel or User levels. If an attribute is set to false at the Application level, PAM proceeds to evaluate the attribute at the next most granular level.
     

    Use application level grants with caution

    When access is granted on an application level, all channels and users will have access.

    Application level grants can also happen due to a bug in your code. e.g. Null parameters for channels and auth-keys can cause accidental application level grants.

  2. Channel Level - After first verifying an attribute at the Application level, PAM evaluates the attribute at the Channel level. If an attribute is set to true for a combination of subscribeKey and channel, PAM grants access for that attribute at the Channel level without proceeding to check whether there may be user level permissions.
  3. User Level - As a final step PAM evaluates the attributes at the User level. If an attribute is set to true for subscribeKey, channel and auth_key, access is granted for that attribute.
 
If an argument of the grant is not provided, an expected default will be assumed.
  • read and write arguments default to false
  • no auth_key results in channel-level grant
  • no channel results in application-level grant
No Permissions - If no permissions were granted at any of the three levels, the user will be denied access to the PubNub resource and receive a 403 error message. This is the default behavior for a PAM enabled application.
 
Note that privileges specifically granted to an application's subscribeKey always take precedence over privileges granted to channel or auth_key. Therefore an application that requires authentication at the userlevel should not grant access at either the Application or Channel levels.
  • History: To access historical messages you must grant full read access at either the subscribeKey or channel level. When a user has the appropriate permissions they can access any data stored. If they do not have access a 403 will be returned by PAM.
  • Presence: To grant access to Presence for a particular channel name you must also allow read and write access to the presence channel name which is specified by adding the -pnpres suffix to the name. Also note that a leave will fail in the case where a user's grant expires while connected. An HTTP 403 will be returned.
  • APNS: Standard permissions are required for publishing.
The duration of permission set with grant() are controlled by setting a time-to-live(TTL). If a TTL is not specified it is automatically set to 1440 minutes by default. Once the TTL associated with an entry in PAM has expired, the read and write attributes are immediately set to false for that entry in the PAM table.
 
PAM grant or revoke requests must be less than ~32KB at a time, or the client will return an error. For requests greater than 32KB, break them into smaller batched requests.
 
When the message size exceeds 32KB the server returns the HTTP Error code 500, instead of the correct error code 414.
 The limit on the total amount of channels that you can pass at once when using grant() is 200.
To Grant Permissions on a Channel you can use the following method(s) in the Android V4 SDK
  1. ParameterTypeRequiredDefaultsDescription
    authKeysArraysOptionalSpecifies auth Key to grant permissions.
    It is possible to specify multiple auth keys.
    You can also grant access to a single auth key for multiple channels at the same time.
    Zero or more channels with zero or more auth tokens are allowed.
    channelsArraysOptionalSpecifies the channels on which to grant permissions.
    If no channels/channelGroups are specified, then the grant applies to any and all channels/channelGroups that have been or will be created for that publish/subscribe key set.
    Furthermore, any existing or future grants on specific channels are ignored, until the all channels grant is revoked.
    It is possible to grant permissions to multiple channels simultaneously.

    Wildcard notation like a.* can be used to grant access on channels. You can grant one level deep.
    • a.* - you can grant on this.
    • a.b.* - grant will not work on this. If you grant on a.b.*, the grant will treat a.b.* as a single channel with name a.b.*.
    channelGroupsArraysOptionalSpecifies the channelGroups to grant permissions. If no channels/channelGroups are specified, then the grant applies to any and all channels/channelGroups that have been or will be created for that publish/subscribe key set.
    Furthermore, any existing or future grants on specific channelGroups are ignored, until the all channelGroups grant is revoked.
    It is possible to grant permissions to multiple channelGroups simultaneously.
    writeBooleanOptionalfalseWrite permission
    readBooleanOptionalfalseRead permission
    manageBooleanOptionalfalseManage permission
    deleteBooleanOptionalfalseDelete permission
    ttlLongOptionalNot setTime to live for permission to be valid
    asyncPNCallbackYesPNCallback of type PNAccessManagerGrantResult
pubnub.grant()
    .channels(Arrays.asList("ch1", "ch2", "ch3")) //channels to allow grant on
    .channelGroups(Arrays.asList("cg1", "cg2", "cg3")) // groups to allow grant on
    .authKeys(Arrays.asList("key1", "key2", "key3")) // the keys we are provisioning
    .write(true) // allow those keys to write (false by default)
    .manage(true) // allow those keys to manage channel groups (false by default)
    .read(true) // allow keys to read the subscribe feed (false by default)
    .delete(true)  // allow keys to delete messages (false by default)
    .ttl(12337) // how long those keys will remain valid (0 for eternity)
    .async(new PNCallback<PNAccessManagerGrantResult>() {
        @Override
        public void onResponse(PNAccessManagerGrantResult result, PNStatus status) {
            // PNAccessManagerGrantResult is a parsed and abstracted response from server
        }
    });
The grant() operation returns a PNAccessManagerGrantResult which contains the following operations:
MethodTypeDescription
getLevel()StringSubkey or channel level.
getTtl()IntTtl of grant.
getSubscribeKey()StringThe subscribeKey.
getChannels()Map<String, Map<String, PNAccessManagerKeyData>>Access rights per channel. See PNAccessManagerKeyData for more details.
getChannelGroups()Map<String, Map<String, PNAccessManagerKeyData>>Access rights per channel group. See PNAccessManagerKeyData for more details.
MethodTypeDescription
isReadEnabled()Booleantrue if the user has read rights.
isWriteEnabled()Booleantrue if the user has write rights.
isManageEnabled()Booleantrue if the user has manage rights.
isDeleteEnabled()Booleantrue if the user has delete rights.
  1. pubnub.grant()
        .channels(Arrays.asList("my_channel"))	
        .write(false)
        .read(true)
        .authKeys(Arrays.asList("my_ro_authkey"))
        .ttl(5)
        .async(new PNCallback<PNAccessManagerGrantResult>() {
            @Override
            public void onResponse(PNAccessManagerGrantResult result, PNStatus status) {
                // PNAccessManagerGrantResult is a parsed and abstracted response from server
            }
        });
    The above code would return the following response to the client:
    if (!status.isError()) {
        result.getTtl(); // 5
        result.getLevel(); // user
    }
  2. pubnub.grant()
        .channels(Arrays.asList("my_channel-pnpres"))	
        .write(true)
        .read(true)
        .async(new PNCallback<PNAccessManagerGrantResult>() {
            @Override
            public void onResponse(PNAccessManagerGrantResult result, PNStatus status) {
                // PNAccessManagerGrantResult is a parsed and abstracted response from server
            }
        });
    
  3. pubnub.grant()
        .channelGroups(Arrays.asList("cg1", "cg2", "cg3")) // groups to allow grant on
        .authKeys(Arrays.asList("key1", "key2", "key3")) // the keys we are provisioning
        .write(true) // allow those keys to write (false by default)
        .manage(true) // allow those keys to manage channel groups (false by default)
        .read(true) // allow keys to read the subscribe feed (false by default)
        .ttl(12337) // how long those keys will remain valid (0 for eternity)
        .async(new PNCallback<PNAccessManagerGrantResult>() {
            @Override
            public void onResponse(PNAccessManagerGrantResult result, PNStatus status) {
                // PNAccessManagerGrantResult is a parsed and abstracted response from server
            }
        });
    The above code would return the following response to the client:
    if (!status.isError()) {
        result.getTtl(); // 12337
        result.getLevel(); // user
    }
  4. To perform a first level wildcard grant for channel groups you need to specify : (colon) as the parameter for channelGroups. This will ensure that users can read or manage all channel groups.
    pubnub.grant()
        .channelGroups(Arrays.asList(":"))
        .read(true) 
        .manage(true)
        .async(new PNCallback<PNAccessManagerGrantResult>() {
            @Override
            public void onResponse(PNAccessManagerGrantResult result, PNStatus status) {
                // PNAccessManagerGrantResult is a parsed and abstracted response from server
            }
        });
  5.  

    Use application level grants with caution

    When access is granted on an application level, all channels and users will have access.

    Application level grants can also happen due to a bug in your code. e.g. Null parameters for channels and auth-keys can cause accidental application level grants.

    pubnub.grant()
        .write(true)
        .read(true)
        .async(new PNCallback<PNAccessManagerGrantResult>() {
            @Override
            public void onResponse(PNAccessManagerGrantResult result, PNStatus status) {
                // PNAccessManagerGrantResult is a parsed and abstracted response from server
            }
        });
  6. pubnub.grant()
        .channels(Arrays.asList("my_channel")) 
        .write(true)
        .read(true)
        .async(new PNCallback<PNAccessManagerGrantResult>() {
            @Override
            public void onResponse(PNAccessManagerGrantResult result, PNStatus status) { 
                // PNAccessManagerGrantResult is a parsed and abstracted response from server         
            }
        });
  7. pubnub.grant()
        .channels(Arrays.asList("my_channel")) 
        .write(true)
        .read(true)
        .authKeys(Arrays.asList("my_authkey"))
        .ttl(5)
        .async(new PNCallback<PNAccessManagerGrantResult>() {
            @Override
            public void onResponse(PNAccessManagerGrantResult result, PNStatus status) { 
                // PNAccessManagerGrantResult is a parsed and abstracted response from server
            }
        });
 
Request signatures are ignored if the required timestamp parameter is missing.

Use the grantToken() method to generate an access token with embedded access control lists. A PubNub client then sends that very token as a query parameter along with a request which may need an authorization token. In order to take advantage of the Token manager which does this job automatically, refer to the Token Management System section.

 
  • Only server-side instances are able to use the grantToken() method. In other words, only PubNub instances with a valid secret key are able to do so.
  • Currently, grantToken() is only available for Users and Spaces. For other requests, use the grant() method.
  • Currently, PubNub supports only one regex pattern for each User and Space. Calling grantToken() again with the same user and space patterns will overwrite the existing pattern.
  • You can use this method to grant read, write, manage, delete and create permissions for Users and Spaces. To grant permissions on an auth key that will be used to subscribe to events on User and Space channels, use the grant() method.
  1. ParameterTypeRequiredDescription
    ttlIntegerYesThe total duration (in minutes) that the token will remain valid. The minimum allowed is 1 minute. The maximum is 43,200 minutes (equivalent to 30 days).
    usersUser...OptionalA varargs array of Users
    spacesSpace...OptionalA varargs array of Spaces
    metaIntegerOptionalOptional metadata object which must be serialazable to a valid JSON object

Grant Token

pubnub.grantToken()
    .ttl(60)
    .users(User.id("user_1").write().create().delete(),
           User.id("user_2").write().create(),
           User.id("user_3").write().create(),
           User.pattern("emp-.*").read())
    .spaces(Space.pattern("room-.*").read().write().manage())
    .async(new PNCallback < PNGrantTokenResult > () {
        @Override
        public void onResponse(PNGrantTokenResult tokenResult, PNStatus pnStatus) {
            if (!pnStatus.isError()) {
                String accessToken = tokenResult.getToken();
                /*
                * With this token, a pubnub client can do everything
                * what's specified in the chain above.
                *
                * In order to take advantage of these granted permissions,
                * a client must add the corresponding accessToken
                * as the authKey parameter to applicable requests.
                */
            }
        }
    });

The grantToken() operation returns a PNGrantTokenResult which contains the following fields:

MethodTypeDescription
getTokenStringA signed token which can be used to access the requested resources for a specific duration.
  1. In the Java SDK, and in terms of the grantToken() method, applicable resources are instances of User and Space. Both have static factory methods for to create instances. Also, both feature ways to reference a concrete User or Space or a regex pattern which applies to multiple Users and Spaces. Both employ a fluent API to specify which permissions (rights) they need.
    // Reference a concrete user and request permission to read and update it.
    User.id("user_1").read().write();
    
    // Reference every user prefixed with "emp-" and request a permission for creating such users.
    User.pattern("emp-.*").create();
    
    // Reference a concrete space and request all possible permissions
    Space.id("space_1").read().write().manage().delete().create();
    
    // Reference every space and request read permissions for all of them
    Space.pattern(".*").read();