SelectAngularJS Publish & Subscribe API Reference for Realtime Apps

These docs are for version 3.2.1 of the AngularJS SDK. To check out the docs for the latest version Click Here.
 

PubNub 4.0 for AngularJS is our latest and greatest! Please click here for our PubNub 4.0 for AngularJS docs and SDK.

PubNub 3.x for AngularJS will encounter End Of Life (EOL) July 1st, 2017. All users currently on 3.x should begin migrating to 4.x. The 3.x SDK will continue to work. We will no longer support it and if you run into an issue, we will request that you upgrade to the latest version before solving the issue.

If you have questions about the PubNub for AngularJS SDK, please contact us at support@pubnub.com.

The publish() function is used to send a message to all subscribers of a channel. To publish a message you must first specify a valid publish_key at initialization. A successfully published message is replicated across the PubNub Real-Time Network and sent simultaneously to all subscribed clients on a channel.

Messages in transit can be secured from potential eavesdroppers with SSL/TLS by setting ssl to true during initialization.

Publish Anytime

It is not required to be subscribed to a channel in order to publish to that channel.

Message Data:

The message argument can contain any JSON serializable data, including: Objects, Arrays, Ints and Strings. data should not contain special AngularJS classes or functions as these will not serialize. String content can include any single-byte or multi-byte UTF-8 character.

 
Do Not Use JSON.stringify!
It is important to note that you should not use JSON.stringify() when sending signals/messages via PUBNUB. Why? Because the serialization is done for you automatically. Instead just pass the full object as the message payload. PubNub takes care of everything for you.
Message Size:

The maximum number of characters per message is 32 KiB by default. The maximum message size is based on the final escaped character count, including the channel name. An ideal message size is under 1800 bytes which allows a message to be compressed and sent using single IP datagram (1.5 KiB) providing optimal network performance.

If the message you publish exceeds the configured size, you will receive the following message:

Message Too Large Error
["PUBLISHED",[0,"Message Too Large","13524237335750949"]]

For further details please check: https://support.pubnub.com/support/solutions/articles/14000113049-calculating-message-payload-size-before-publish.

Message Publish Rate:

Messages can be published as fast as bandwidth conditions will allow. There is a soft limit based on max throughput since messages will be discarded if the subscriber cannot keep pace with the publisher.

For example, if 200 messages are published simultaneously before a subscriber has had a chance to receive any messages, the subscriber may not receive the first 100 messages because the message queue has a limit of only 100 messages stored in memory.

Publishing to Multiple Channels:

It is not possible to publish a message to multiple channels simultaneously. The message must be published to one channel at a time.

Publishing Messages Reliably:

There are some best practices to ensure messages are delivered when publishing to a channel:

  • Publish to any given channel in a serial manner (i.e. not concurrently).
  • Check that the return code is success (e.g. [1,"Sent","136074940..."])
  • Publish the next message only after receiving a success return code.
  • If a failure code is returned ([0,"blah","<timetoken>"]), retry the publish.
  • Avoid exceeding the in-memory queue's capacity of 100 messages. An overflow situation (aka missed messages) can occur if slow subscribers fail to keep up with the publish pace in a given period of time.
  • Throttle publish bursts in accordance with your app's latency needs e.g. Publish no faster than 5 msgs per second to any one channel.
To Publish a message you can use the following method(s) in the AngularJS SDK:
  1. ParameterTypeRequiredDescription
    callbackFunctionOptional for sync, Required for asyncExecutes on a successful publish.
    channelStringYesSpecifies channel name to publish messages to.
    messageJSONYesThe message may be any valid JSON type including objects, arrays, strings, and numbers.
    publish_keyStringOptionalSpecifies the required publish_key to use to send messages to a channel.
    store_in_historyBooleanOptionalIf true the messages are stored in history, default true.
    errorFunctionOptionalExecutes on a publish error.

Publish a message to a channel:

Pubnub.publish({
	channel: 'my_channel',        
	message: 'Hello from the PubNub Javascript SDK!',
	callback : function(m){
		console.log(m)
	}
});
 
Before running the above publish example, either using the Debug Console, or in a separate script running in a separate terminal window, subscribe to the same channel that is being published to.
The function returns the following formatted response:
[1, "Sent", "13769558699541401"]
  1. Pubnub.publish({
    	channel  : 'my_channel',
    	message  : { 
    		"a"  : 1 
    	},
    	callback : function(m){
    		console.log(m)
    	}
    });
The fire endpoint allows the client to send a message to PubNub Functions Event Handlers. These messages will go directly to any Event Handlers registered on the channel that you fire to and will trigger their execution. The content of the fired request will be available for processing within the Event Handler. The message sent via fire() is not replicated, and so will not be received by any subscribers to the channel. The message is also not stored in history.
To Fire a message you can use the following method(s) in the AngularJS SDK:
  1. ParameterTypeRequiredDescription
    callbackFunctionOptional for sync, Required for asyncExecutes on a successful publish.
    channel StringYesSpecifies channel name to publish messages to.
    message JSONYesThe message may be any valid JSON type including objects, arrays, strings, and numbers.
    publish_keyStringOptionalSpecifies the required publish_key to use to send messages to a channel.
    error FunctionOptionalExecutes on a publish error.

Fire a message to a channel:

pubnub.fire({
    channel : 'my_channel',
    message : 'Hello from the PubNub Javascript SDK!',
    callback : function(m){
        console.log(m)
    }
});
This function causes the client to create an open TCP socket to the PubNub Real-Time Network and begin listening for messages on a specified channel. To subscribe to a channel the client must send the appropriate subscribe_key at initialization.
By default a newly subscribed client will only receive messages published to the channel after the subscribe() call completes.
 
You can be notified of connectivity via the connect callback. By waiting for the connect callback to return before attempting to publish, you can avoid a potential race condition on clients that subscribe and immediately publish messages before the subscribe has completed.
Using AngularJS SDK, if a client becomes disconnected from a channel, it can automatically attempt to reconnect to that channel and retrieve any available messages that were missed during that period by setting restore to true. By default a client will attempt to reconnect after exceeding a 320 second connection timeout.
 Unsubscribing from all channels, and then subscribing to a new channel Y is not the same as subscribing to channel Y and then unsubscribing from the previously-subscribed channel(s). Unsubscribing from all channels resets the last-received timetoken and thus, there could be some gaps in the subscription that may lead to message loss.
To Subscribe to a channel you can use the following method(s) in the AngularJS SDK:
  1. ParameterTypeRequiredDescription
    channel Array, String or comma separated ListYesSpecifies the channel to subscribe to. It is possible to specify multiple channels as a list or as an array. See Examples for more info.
    channel_group StringYesSpecifies the channel_group to subscribe to.
    timetoken Number OptionalSpecifies timetoken from which to start returning any available cached messages. Message retrieval with timetoken is not guaranteed and should only be considered a best-effort service.
    connect Function OptionalThis callback is called on a successful connection to the PubNub cloud.
    disconnect Function OptionalThis callback is called on client disconnect from the PubNub cloud.
    error Function OptionalThis callback is called on an error event.
    message Function OptionalThis callback is called on receiving a message from the channel.
    presence Function OptionalSpecifies callback to be called when presence events take place such as join or leave.
    reconnect Function OptionalThis callback is called on successfully re-connecting to the PubNub cloud.
    restore Boolean OptionalIf restore is set to true , when a client is disconnected and then reconnects to a channel, it will automatically attempt to retrieve any missed messages since it was last connected.
    windowing Number OptionalSpecifies the time interval in milliseconds that PubNub will use to optimize message delivery by bundling them into a single compressed payload. The Default is 10 milliseconds. Setting a value of 1000 milliseconds will allow 100 messages in one second to be bundled and compressed for optimized delivery.
    backfill Boolean OptionalThis setting has been removed from subscribe and is only accessible at init as of 3.6.7.
    state Object OptionalJSON object of key/value pairs with supported data-types of int, float and string. Nesting of key/values is not permitted and key names beginning with prefix pn are reserved.
    If state is undefined, the current state for the specified uuid will be returned. If a specified key already exists for the uuid it will be over-written with the new value. Key values can be deleted by setting the particular value to null.
    All state data for a user is deleted once the associated uuid leaves the channel.
Subscribe to a channel:
// Subscribe to a channel

Pubnub.subscribe({
    channel: 'my_channel',
    message: function(m){
		console.log(m)
	},
    error: function (error) {
		// Handle error here
		console.log(JSON.stringify(error));
    }
});
The output below demonstrates the response format to a successful call:
[[], "Time Token"]
  1. // Subscribe with messages
     
    Pubnub.subscribe({
        channel : 'my_channel',
        message : function( message, env, channel ){
            // RECEIVED A MESSAGE.
            console.log(message)
        },
        connect: function(){
            console.log("Connected")
        },
        disconnect: function(){
            console.log("Disconnected")
        },
        reconnect: function(){
            console.log("Reconnected")
        },
        error: function(){
            console.log("Network Error")
        },
    })
  2. Requires Stream Controller add-on XRequires that the Stream Controller add-on is enabled for your key. See this page on enabling add-on features on your keys:

    http://www.pubnub.com/knowledge-base/discussion/644/how-do-i-enable-add-on-features-for-my-keys.
    It is possible to subscribe to more than one channel over a single TCP socket by taking advantage of Multiplexing feature. See the Multiplexing section for more info on this feature as well as the examples below using a list or an array to specify channel name.
    // Add channels as a CSV list
     
    Pubnub.subscribe({
        channel: 'my_channel_1,my_channel_2',
        message: function(message){
            console.log(message)
        }
    });
    // Add channels as an array
     
    Pubnub.subscribe({
        channel: ['my_channel_1','my_channel_2','my_channel_3'],
        message: function(message) {
            console.log(message)
        }
    });
  3. Requires Presence add-on XRequires that the Presence add-on is enabled for your key. See this page on enabling add-on features on your keys:

    http://www.pubnub.com/knowledge-base/discussion/644/how-do-i-enable-add-on-features-for-my-keys.
    For any given channel there is an associated Presence channel. You can subscribe directly to the channel by appending -pnpres to the channel name. For example the channel named my_channel would have the presence channel named my_channel-pnpres.
    Pubnub.subscribe({
    	channel: "my_channel",
    	presence: function(m){
    		console.log(m)
    	},
    	message: function(m){
    		console.log(m)
    	}
    });
    
    {
    	"action": "join",
    	"timestamp": 1345546797,
    	"uuid": "175c2c67-b2a9-470d-8f4b-1db94f90e39e",
    	"occupancy": 2
    }
    
    {
        "action" : "leave",
        "timestamp" : 1345549797,
        "uuid" : "175c2c67-b2a9-470d-8f4b-1db94f90e39e",
        "occupancy" : 1
    }
    
    {
    	"action": "timeout",
    	"timestamp": 1345549797,
    	"uuid": "76c2c571-9a2b-d074-b4f8-e93e09f49bd",
    	"occupancy": 0
    }
    
    
    {
    	"action": "state-change",
    	"uuid": "76c2c571-9a2b-d074-b4f8-e93e09f49bd",
    	"timestamp": 1345549797,
    	"data": {
    		"isTyping": true
    	}
    }
    
    
    {
    	"action":"interval",
    	"timestamp":1474396578,
    	"occupancy":2
    }
    

    When a channel is in interval mode with presence_deltas pnconfig flag enabled, the interval message may also include the following fields which contain an array of changed UUIDs since the last interval message.

    • joined
    • left
    • timedout

    For example, this interval message indicates there were 2 new UUIDs that joined and 1 timed out UUID since the last interval:

    
    {
        "action" : "interval",
        "occupancy" : <# users in channel>,
        "timestamp" : <unix timestamp>,
        "joined" : ["uuid2", "uuid3"],
        "timedout" : ["uuid1"]
    }
    

    If the full interval message is greater than 30KB (since the max publish payload is ∼32KB), none of the extra fields will be present. Instead there will be a here_now_refresh boolean field set to true. This indicates to the user that they should do a hereNow request to get the complete list of users present in the channel.

    
    {
        "action" : "interval",
        "occupancy" : <# users in channel>,
        "timestamp" : <unix timestamp>,
        "here_now_refresh" : true
    }
    
  4. Requires Stream Controller add-on XRequires that the Stream Controller add-on is enabled with Enable Wildcard Subscribe checked for your key. See this page on enabling add-on features on your keys:

    http://www.pubnub.com/knowledge-base/discussion/644/how-do-i-enable-add-on-features-for-my-keys.
    Wildcard subscribes allow the client to subscribe to multiple channels using wildcard. E.g., if you subscribe to a.* you will get all messages for a.b, a.c, a.x. The wildcarded * portion refers to any portion of the channel string name after the dot (.).
     
    3 levels (2 dots) of wildcarding is supported, e.g.:
    a.*
    a.b.*
    Pubnub.subscribe({
        'channel' : "ab.*",
        'connect' : function(c) {
            console.log('CONNECTED to ' + c);
        },
        'disconnect' : function(c) {
            console.log('CONNECTED to ' + c);
        },
        'reconnect' : function(c) {
            console.log('CONNECTED to ' + c);
        },
        'error' : function(e) {
            console.log('ERROR  ' + JSON.stringify(e));
        },
        'message' : function(m, a, subscribed_channel, c, real_channel) {
            console.log(JSON.stringify(m));
            console.log(JSON.stringify(subscribed_channel));
            console.log(JSON.stringify(real_channel));
        }
    })
  5. Taking advantage of the windowing feature can result in significant performance increase in throughput and improved battery life for mobile devices. This optimization lets PubNub bundle messages into a gzip compressed payload. Setting a windowing value of 1000 milliseconds for example would allow 100 messages a second to be bundled and compressed into one single payload at optimal speeds.
     // Optimize connections for mobile w/ auto restore
     
     Pubnub.subscribe({
         channel: 'my_mobile_channel',
         windowing: 1000,
         restore: true
     });
    
  6. The presence callback is an optional parameter used with the subscribe() function to stream presence events as they occur directly to target devices. When included with the subscribe function, you will automatically receive presence events streamed to the callback.
    Using the Presence Callback:
    Pubnub.subscribe({
    	channel: "my_channel",
    	presence: function(m){
    		console.log(m)
    	},
    	message: function(m){
    		console.log(m)
    	}
    });
  7. Requires Presence add-on XRequires that the Presence add-on is enabled for your key. See this page on enabling add-on features on your keys:

    http://www.pubnub.com/knowledge-base/discussion/644/how-do-i-enable-add-on-features-for-my-keys.
     Always set the UUID to uniquely identify the user or device that connects to PubNub. This UUID should be persisted, and should remain unchanged for the lifetime of the user or the device. Not setting the UUID can significantly impact your billing if your account uses the Monthly Active Users (MAUs) based pricing model, and can also lead to unexpected behavior if you have Presence enabled.
    Pubnub.subscribe({
        channel: "my_channel",
        message: function(message) {
            console.log('message', message);
        },
        state: {
            age: 67,
            full: 'Robert Plant',
            country: 'UK',
            appstate: 'foreground',
            latlong: '51.5072° N, 0.1275° W'
        }
    });
  8. Requires Stream Controller add-on XRequires that the Stream Controller add-on is enabled for your key. See this page on enabling add-on features on your keys:

    http://www.pubnub.com/knowledge-base/discussion/644/how-do-i-enable-add-on-features-for-my-keys.
    Pubnub.subscribe({
    	message : function(m) {
    		console.log(m)
    	},
    	error : function (error) {
    		// Handle error here
    		console.log(JSON.stringify(error));
    	},
    	channel_group: "family"
    });
  9. Requires Stream Controller and Presence add-on XRequires that both Stream Controller and Presence add-ons are enabled for your key. See this page on enabling add-on features on your keys:

    http://www.pubnub.com/knowledge-base/discussion/644/how-do-i-enable-add-on-features-for-my-keys.
    Pubnub.subscribe({
    	message : function(m) {
    		console.log(m)
    	},
    	error : function (error) {
    		// Handle error here
    		console.log(JSON.stringify(error));
    	},
    	presence : function(m) {
    		console.log(m)
    	},
    	channel_group: "family"
    });
When subscribed to a single channel, this function causes the client to issue a leave from the channel and close any open socket to the PubNub Network. For multiplexed channels, the specified channel(s) will be removed and the socket remains open until there are no more channels remaining in the list.
 Unsubscribing from all channels, and then subscribing to a new channel Y is not the same as subscribing to channel Y and then unsubscribing from the previously-subscribed channel(s). Unsubscribing from all channels resets the last-received timetoken and thus, there could be some gaps in the subscription that may lead to message loss.
To Unsubscribe from a channel you can use the following method(s) in the AngularJS SDK:
  1. ParameterTypeRequiredDescription
    channel Array, String YesSpecifies the channel to unsubscribe from.
    channel_group StringSpecifying either channel or channel_group is mandatorySpecifies the channel_group to unsubscribe from.
Unsubscribe from a channel:
// Unsubscribe from 'my_channel'

Pubnub.unsubscribe({
	channel : 'my_channel',
});
The output below demonstrates the response to a successful call:
{
	"action" : "leave"
}
  1. Requires Stream Controller add-on XRequires that the Stream Controller add-on is enabled for your key. See this page on enabling add-on features on your keys:

    http://www.pubnub.com/knowledge-base/discussion/644/how-do-i-enable-add-on-features-for-my-keys.
     // Unsubscribe from list of channels
     
     Pubnub.unsubscribe({
         channel: 'chan4,chan6,chan7'
     })
     // Unsubscribe from array of channels
     
     
    Pubnub.unsubscribe({
        channel: ['chan1','chan2','chan3']
    })
     
    
    {
    	"action" : "leave"
    }
    
  2. Pubnub.unsubscribe({
        'channel_group' : 'demo_group'
    }); 
  3. Requires Stream Controller add-on XRequires that the Stream Controller add-on is enabled for your key. See this page on enabling add-on features on your keys:

    http://www.pubnub.com/knowledge-base/discussion/644/how-do-i-enable-add-on-features-for-my-keys.
    Pubnub.unsubscribe({
        'channel_group' : ['demo_group1', 'demo_group2']
    });