PythonTwistedTwistedTornadoAsyncioNativePython-Twisted V4 Access Manager API Reference for Realtime Apps


NOTICE: Based on current web trends and our own usage data, PubNub's Python Twisted SDK is deprecated as of May 1, 2019. Deprecation means we will no longer be updating the Python Twisted SDK but will continue to support users currently using it. Please feel free to use our other Python SDK offerings as they will continue to be supported and maintained. If you would like to use the Python Twisted SDK specifically, we would love to work with you on keeping this project alive!

PubNub Access Manager (PAM) allows you to enforce secure controls for client access to resources within the PubNub network. With PAM, your servers can grant their clients access to individual PubNub resources for a limited duration, with the ability to extend access or add permissions for additional resources.

As soon as PAM is enabled, no publish/subscribe operations can be done without first explicitly providing an authorization token to the PubNub object. If an invalid token is provided, the requesting client will receive a Forbidden error.

For more information about PAM, refer to Managing Permissions with Access Manager.

Requires Access Manager add-on XRequires that the Access Manager add-on is enabled for your key. See this page on enabling add-on features on your keys:
The grant method allows you to grant permissions for one or more resources to one or more authKeys. You may need to make multiple grant calls with an authKey so that you can specify explicit permissions for each channel, channelGroup and uuid resources. For common permissions, you can normally use a single request.

Privileges specifically granted to an application's subscribe_key always take precedence over privileges granted to channel or auth_key. Therefore an application that requires authentication at the user level should not grant access at either the Application or Channel levels. View the Grant Levels section for more details.

The grant request allows your server to securely grant access for your clients on the following resources within the platform. Each resource allows a limited set of permissions that control the operations that can be performed by the clients. For permissions and API operations mapping information, refer to Managing Permissions with Access Manager.

channelread, write, get, manage, update, join, delete
uuidget, update, delete
channelGroupread, manage

To make granting access on multiple channels and channel groups more efficient, you can use the wildcard notation. It doesn't, however, apply to the uuid resource and you can only go one level deep using wildcards.

  • * grants access on all channels
  • a.* grants access on all channels that begin with `a.`
  • a.b.* doesn't work. If you grant on a.b.*, the grant treats `a.b.*` as a channel name, not a wildcard
When a user attempts to access a PubNub resource, PAM will evaluate any existing rules using the following order of precedence before access to a channel is granted to the user:
  1. Application Level - PAM privileges are always evaluated first at the Application level. If either read or write attribute is set to True for a subscribe_key, PAM will immediately grant access for that attribute without proceeding to check permissions at either Channel or User levels. If an attribute is set to False at the Application level, PAM proceeds to evaluate the attribute at the next most granular level.
  2. Channel Level - After first verifying an attribute at the Application level, PAM evaluates the attribute at the Channel level. If an attribute is set to True for a combination of subscribe_key, and channel, PAM grants access for that attribute at the Channel level without proceeding to check whether there may be user level permissions.
  3. User Level (Recommended) - As a final step PAM evaluates the attributes at the User level. If an attribute is set to True for subscribe_key, channel and auth_key, access is granted for that attribute. Similarly, user level grants also allow you granting an auth_key access to channelGroups and uuids. User level grants require auth_key and are the recommended approach if you need to manage permissions for individual users within your application. Each user should be assigned a unique auth_key and securely passed back to the user to perform operations on the platform.
To Grant Permissions on a Channel you can use the following method(s) in the Python-Twisted V4 SDK
  1. ParameterTypeRequiredDefaultsDescription
    auth_keysString | List | TupleOptionalSpecifies auth Key to grant permissions.
    It is possible to specify multiple auth keys as comma separated list in combination with a single channel name.
    You can also grant access to a single auth key for multiple channels at the same time.
    Zero or more channels with zero or more auth tokens are allowed.
    channelsString | List | TupleOptional Specifies the channels on which to grant permissions.
    If no channels/channelGroups are specified, then the grant applies to any and all channels/channelGroups that have been or will be created for that publish/subscribe key set.
    Furthermore, any existing or future grants on specific channels are ignored, until the all channels grant is revoked.
    It is possible to grant permissions to multiple channels simultaneously by specifying the channels as a comma separated list.

    Wildcard notation like a.* can be used to grant access on channels. You can grant one level deep.
    • a.* - you can grant on this.
    • a.b.* - grant will not work on this. If you grant on a.b.*, the grant will treat a.b.* as a single channel with name a.b.*.
    channel_groupsString | List | TupleOptional Specifies the channelGroups to grant permissions. If no channels/channelGroups are specified, then the grant applies to any and all channels/channelGroups that have been or will be created for that publish/subscribe key set.
    Furthermore, any existing or future grants on specific channelGroups are ignored, until the all channelGroups grant is revoked.
    It is possible to grant permissions to multiple channelGroups simultaneously by specifying the channelGroups as a comma separated list.
    readBooleanOptionalFalseRead permissions.
    writeBooleanOptionalFalseWrite permissions.
    manageBooleanOptionalFalseManage permissions.
    deleteBooleanOptionalFalseDelete permissions.
    ttlIntOptionalNoneTime to live for permission to be valid.
d = pubnub.grant().channels(["ch1", "ch2", "ch3"]).\
    channel_groups(["cg1", "cg2"]).\
    auth_keys(["key1", "key2"]).\

levelStringPermissions level, one of subkey, subkey+auth, channel, channel-group, channel-group+auth level.
ttlIntttl of grant
subscribe_keyStringThe subscribe key.
channelsDictAccess rights per channel. See PNAccessManagerChannelData for more details.
groupsDictAccess rights per group. See PNAccessManagerGroupData for more details.
read_enabledBooleansubkey level read permissions.
write_enabledBooleansubkey level write permissions.
manage_enabledBooleansubkey level manage permissions.
delete_enabledBooleansubkey level delete permissions.
ttlIntTime to live value.
auth_keysListAccess rights per auth-key. See PNAccessManagerKeyData for more details.
nameStringChannel or group name.
read_enabledBooleanChannel or group level read permissions.
write_enabledBooleanChannel or group level write permissions.
manage_enabledBooleanChannel or group level manage permissions.
delete_enabledBooleanChannel or group level delete permissions.
ttlIntTime to live value.
read_enabledBooleanread permissions
write_enabledBooleanwrite permissions
manage_enabledBooleanmanage permissions
delete_enabledBooleandelete permissions
ttlIntTime to live value

read, write, manage, and delete permissions have 3 states:

  • True if enabled.
  • False if disabled.
  • None if not explicitly set.
PAM grant or revoke requests must be less than ~32KiB at a time, or the client will return an error. For requests greater than 32KiB, break them into smaller batched requests. When the message size exceeds 32KiB the server returns the HTTP Error code 500, instead of the correct error code 414.
For NTP synchronization, please ensure that you have configured NTP on your server to keep the clock in sync. This is to prevent system clock drift leading to 400 Invalid Timestamp error response.
  1. d = pubnub.grant().read(True).write(True).deferred()
  2. d = pubnub.grant().channels("my_channel").read(True).write(True).deferred()
  3. d = pubnub.grant().channels("my_channel").read(True).write(False).\
    The above code would return the following response to the client:
    	"status" : 200,
    	"message" : "Success",
    	"payload" : {
    		"ttl" : 5,
    		"auths" : {
    			"my_ro_authkey" : {
    				"r" : 1,
    				"w" : 0,
    				"d" : 0
    		"subscribe_key" : "my_subkey",
    		"level" : "user",
    		"channel" : "my_channel"
    	"service" : "Access Manager"
  4. d = pubnub.grant().\
  5. d = pubnub.grant().\
        channel_groups(["cg1", "cg2", "cg3"]).\
        auth_keys(["auth1", "auth2", "auth3"]).\
    The above code would return the following response to the client:
        "service":"Access Manager"
  6. envelope = pubnub.grant().\
        channels(["girish", "girish2"]).\
     The limit on the total amount of channels that you can pass at once when using grant() is 200.
  7. To perform a first level wildcard grant for channel groups you need to specify : (colon) as the parameter for channel_groups. This will ensure that users can read or manage all channel groups.

    Use application level grants with caution

    When access is granted on an application level, all channels and users will have access.

    Application level grants can also happen due to a bug in your code. e.g. Null parameters for channels and auth-keys can cause accidental application level grants.

    d = pubnub.grant().\
  9. d = pubnub.grant().channels("my_channel").\
  10. d = pubnub.grant().channels("my_channel").\